• Residential
  • Consultation & Presentation
  • Education & Research 


Enjoy the composting using worms...
Joy all creatures drink
At nature's bosoms;...
Pleasure was given even to the worm
And the cherub stands before God...
Ludwig van Beethoven (1824) Symphony No. 9 in D minor "Choral", final movement. The original words were taken from "Ode to Joy", a poem written by Friedrich Schiller (1785).



Next coming workshop for residential community

Moving Forward to Intensive Vermiculture - Vermicomposting
Date and location will be informed 
Intensive vermiculture-vermicomposting:

          - Right species of compost worms.

          - Right density of compost worms.

          - Optimal conditions.

          - Right mix of organic waste and addition feed.

          - Types of composter design and method.


Worm composting (vermiculture-vermicomposting) is getting more popular because worms increase the speed of composting. They produce worm biomass which is an excellent source of protein and high quality worm castings or vermicompost rich in plant nutrients. Worm composting is safe for the environment and significantly reduces human pathogens and plant diseases because of the high population of beneficial soil microbes involved in the process of vermicomposting.


Most small-scale worm composting (house-hold systems and small containers) in the market result in compost that is too wet, anaerobic (lacking of oxygen), highly acidic, bad smelling, and inviting flies, mites and molds. This is because of too much green waste (nitrogen) and incorrect container design. Actually in small scale vermiculture-vermicomposting, it is more difficult to control and achieve the right environment for compost worms compared to medium and large-scale vermiculture-vermicomposting.


In this workshop we will learn about the basic process of vermiculture-vermicomposting, the biology and density of the compost worms (Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida), optimal conditions, selection of organic waste, vermicomposting methods from batch to continuous systems,  and harvesting worms and worm castings. Illustrations of small and large-scale vermicomposting will be shown. The goal of this workshop is help participants double their compost worm population and biomass within 2 - 3 months in favorable conditions. Approximately 2 - 5% of the green waste will be transferred as composting worm biomass. Approximately 20 - 25% of the green waste will be transferred as worm castings or vermicompost.



Consultation & Presentation


Vermiculture nursery to support the nomadic vermicomposting of the fruit waste, January 2018. PT. Cengkeh Zanzibar, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.


Visiting the vermicomposting of the sludge (tobacco residues) from the waste water treatment plant of the cigarette factory, November 2017. Djarum Oasis Kretek Factory, Kudus, Central Java, Indonesia.


Vermicomposting and the natural way of farming, December 2016. PT. Cengkeh Zanzibar, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.


Vermiculture technology, human health, and the natural way of farming, November 2016. Faculty of Biology, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.


Processing sludge using composting worms or red wigglers at home-scale aquaponic system by Purity Aquafarms, July 2016. Pipe Shop at the Shipyards, North Vancouver, British Columbia.


Setting-up the green waste (kitchen waste) and brown waste (paper waste) vermiculture-vermicomposting and participating the organic farmer market, July 2016. Corvallis Red Wigglers, Corvallis, Oregon.


Visiting Research Laboratories: Bioproducts & Bioenergy, Food, Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Entomology Insect Research on Field & Ornamental Crops, and modern greenhouse,  May 2016. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio.


Appreciating the beauty of other from the heart of the largest Amish settlement in the world: Wind power, horse power, man power related to organic farming and natural food, May 2016. Berlin, Ohio.


Nomadic vermiculture - vermicomposting to increase the soil fertility and productivity in-situ (on-site) at the clove and fruit plantations, December 2015. PT. Cengkeh Zanzibar, Sukoredjo, Central Java, Indonesia.


Visiting one of the Suntory beer factories at Musashino brewery, August 2015. Suntory Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.


Visiting the natural way of farming (aquaponic and fruit plantation) at the one of the most modern hot spring areas in China, August 2015. Huitang, Hunan, China.


Visiting the lotus seed flower plantation also for lotus root harvesting, August 2015. Shaoshan, Hunan, China.


Resource-farm waste management to increase the productivity of the clove and fruit plantations, August 2015. PT. Cengkeh Zanzibar, Sukorejo, Central Java, Indonesia.


Intensive vermiculture-vermicomposting to support the environmental education for young generation and ecotourism, August 2015. Jendela Alam (Window of Nature), Lembang, West Java, Indonesia.


Combining application of compost and compost tea for organic agriculture to reduce the plant pathogens and pests, December 2014. Soilsmith Services, Corvallis, Oregon.


Vermiculture - vermicomposting for biosolids management and sustainability, September 2014. Utility Residuals Management, Liquid Waste Services, Metro Vancouver, British Columbia.


Intensive vermiculture using food waste to produce worm protein for pharmaceuticals, December 2013. Scion Energy (HK) Limited, Hong Kong.


Feasibility study intensive vermiculture vs. vermicomposting, July 2013. Oregon Soil Corporation, Philomath, Oregon.


The "Worm Factory" operation and problem solving, August 2012. Nature's Footprint Inc., Bellingham, Washington.


The mass production of making worm casting teas, August 2012. Sustainable Agricultural Technologies Inc., Cottage Grove, Oregon.


The potential of worm casting teas for organic greenhouse application and vermicomposting for bioremediation, August 2012. Oregon Soil Corporation, Philomath, Oregon.


Vermiculture - vermicomposting and organic gardening, May 2012. South Burnaby Garden Club, Burnaby, British Columbia.


Intensive vermiculture - vermicomposting and resource management, July 2010. Farm School, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Richmond, British Columbia.


Vermicomposting of the food waste and paper waste using large-scale continuous digester for organic product certification, January 2009. Oregon Soil Corporation, Philomath, Oregon.


Soil health laboratory services for organic growers, January 2009. Soil Foodweb Inc., Corvallis, Oregon.


Bioremediation of oil and acid contaminated soil at wellsides using worm castings or vermicompost, 2004-2008. Geopetro LLC., Columbus, Ohio.  


Vermicomposting of the pre-composted organic waste and municipality waste, September 2006. New Ground Vermicomposting, Sacksville, Halifax, Nova Scotia and Sydney, Cape Breton.


Problem with worm growers for composting worms buy-back business, September 2003. B&B Worm Farms, Ltd., Meeker, Oklahoma. 


Improving the vermicomposting technique using the prototype of continuous flow digester for agricultural waste, 1998-2002. Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center - the Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio.


The life cycle of Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, and its possibility for using as environmental health indicator, November 2000, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan.  


Large-scale vermiculture strategies and facilities, Zeeland Wormerkultur, August 2000. Zeeland, The Netherlands.


Vermicomposting of the waste water residuals (biosolids) for USEPA class A biosolids stabilization, May 2000. the City of Ocoee, Florida.


Vermicomposting of the food waste and office waste using Vermitech system, March 2000. Metro Tower, Toronto, Ontario.


Tea leaves and jasmine flowers waste management using vermiculture-vermicomposting and thermophilic composting techniques, 1996-1998. Sosro Tea Beverages Company, Java, Indonesia.


Vermiculture and vermicomposting of the agricultural waste, March 1997. Rainbow Worm Farm, Davis, California. 


Comparing agroecosystems with and without earthworms, March 1997. Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems - University of California, Santa Cruz, California. 


Nomadic vermicomposting for bioremediation, March 1997. Disney Enterprises, suburb San Diego, California.


Progress and problem with one of the largest landfill facilities in US related to the soil formation, March 1997. Disposal Division, the City of San Diego, California. 


Holistic composting strategies and facilities, Vuil Afvoer Maatchappij, July 1996. Noord-Holland, The Netherlands.


Separation of municipal wastes technologies for reuse, recycling and vermicomposting, September 1993. Sovadec, Montelimar, France.



Education & Research



Just for kids



Guide book for the beginner

Appelhof, M. (1997) Worms Eat My Garbage. 2nd edition 162p. Flower Press, Kalamazoo Michigan.



Book for the advanced 

Darwin, C. R. (1881) The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits. First edition 326p. John Murray, London.



Selected supported articles

Gunadi, B. (2011) The status of vermicomposting in Indonesia. In Chapter 30, p481-496 Vermiculture Technology: Earthworms, Organic Wastes and Environmental Management. Edwards, C.A., Arancon, N.Q. and Sherman, R. (Eds.) C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton Florida.



Gunadi, B., Edwards, C.A. (2003) The effects of multiple applications of different wastes on the growth, fecundity and survival of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) (Lumbricidae). Pedobiologia 47(4), 321-330.



Gunadi, B., Edwards, C.A., Blount IV, C. (2003) The influence of different moisture levels on the growth, fecundity and survival of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in cattle and pig manure solids. European Journal of Soil Biology 39(1), 19-24.



Gunadi. B., Edwards, C.A., Arancon, N.Q. (2002) Changes in trophic structure of soil arthropods after the application of vermicomposts. European Journal of Soil Biology 38(2), 161-165.



Gunadi, B., Blount, C., Edwards, C.A. (2002) The growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in cattle solids pre-composted for different periods. Pedobiologia 46(1), 15-23.



Eastman, B.R., Kane, P.N., Edwards C.A., Trytek, L., Gunadi, B., Stermer, A.L., Mobley, J.R. (2001) The effectiveness of vermiculture in human pathogen reduction for USEPA biosolids stabilization. Compost Science and Utilization 9(1), 38-49.





Lanno, R.P., Gunadi, B., Basta, N.T., Bradham, K., Vijver, M., Peijnenburg, W. (2002) A fractionation procedure for the development of critical body residues for metals in earthworms. Proceeding 7th International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology, Cardiff, UK, September 1 – 6. Oral presentation by the first author.


Gunadi, B. (2000) Vermiculture activities in Asia. The Vermillennium: International Conference on Vermiculture and Vermicomposting, Kalamazoo, U.S.A., September 19 – 22. Oral presentation.


Gunadi, B. (2000) The growth and fecundity of Eisenia andrei in different wastes. The Vermillennium: International Conference on Vermiculture and Vermicomposting, Kalamazoo, U.S.A., September 19 – 22. Oral presentation.


Gunadi, B., Lada, S., Edwards, C.A. (2000) Identification and quantification of plant growth regulators in vermicomposts. Proceeding The Vermillennium: International Conference on Vermiculture and Vermicomposting, Kalamazoo, U.S.A., September 19 – 22. Poster presentation.


Gunadi, B. (2000) The growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in different wastes, moisture levels, and pre-composted for different periods. Proceeding XIII International Colloquium on Soil Zoology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, August 14 – 18. Poster presentation.


Sun, Z.-J., Edwards, C.A., Gunadi, B. (2000) Comparison of some ecological characteristics of earthworm between natural and regulated ecosystem. Proceeding XIII International Colloquium on Soil Zoology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, August 14 – 18. Poster presentation.


Sun, Z.-J., Cheng, W.-L., Edwards, C.A., Gunadi, B. (2000) Impact of heavy metals on earthworm. Proceeding XIII International Colloquium on Soil Zoology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, August 14 – 18. Poster presentation.


Gunadi, B. (1999) The acceptability of different wastes for growth of Eisenia fetida. Proceeding Soil Ecology Society International Conference. Out of the Black Box: Ecological Lessons from the Underground, Chicago, U.S.A., May 23 – 26. Oral presentation.


Gunadi, B., Susanto, SJ.A., Sosrodjojo, P.S. (1998) Laboratory and large scale indoor conditions for culturing two species of redworms (Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida) using tea leaf waste as a food. Proceeding 6th International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology, Vigo, Spain, August 31 – September 4. Oral presentation by the first author.


Gunadi, B., Suhardjo, T.B.A., Sofia, D., Susanto, SJ.A., Sosrodjojo, P.S. (1996) Using redworm (Eisenia fetida) to decompose the tea waste. -Preliminary results. Proceeding XII International Colloquium on Soil Zoology, Dublin, Ireland, July 22 – 26. Poster presentation.


Gunadi, B., Verhoef, H.A., van Straalen, N.M. (1995) The flow of nutrients in a Pinus merkusii forest plantation in Central Java affected by volcanic emissions. Proceeding 3rd Conference on Forest Soils (ISSS-AISS-IBG): Soil of tropical forest ecosystem, Balikpapan, Indonesia, October 29 - November 3. Oral presentation by the first author. 


Nagai, H., Harada, M., Nakagawa, M., Tanaka, T., Gunadi, B., Setiabudi, M.L.J. Uktolseja, J.L.A., Miyata, Y. (1995) Effect of chicken extract on the recovery from fatigue caused by mental workload. Proceeding VII Asian Congress of Nutrition, Beijing, People's Republic of China, October 7 – 11. Oral presentation by the first author.


Gunadi, B., Notosoedarmo, S. (1995) Relative importance of the biotic and abiotic components during the composting of the agricultural wastes at Gintungan, Bandungan Village, Java. Proceeding Driven by Nature: Plant Litter Quality and Decomposition, Wye College, University of London, Kent, UK, September 17 – 20. Poster presentation.


Earthworms called ‘earth’s guts’ that grow spontaneously in mud and in humid ground; …especially where there is decayed matter…

Aristotle (350 B.C.) The History of Animals.


Why did Aristotle call earthworms the "earth's guts"?


It's because earthworms act like intestines by processing the soil's organic matter and turning it into food for the plants.